K.I.S.S (Keep it simple, silly)
When it comes to exercise and progressing towards the strong body you want, I feel like people tend to overcomplicate things. Choose two big bang for your buck exercises for the upper body and two for the lower body. Hit those workouts 2x each per week and I promise you'll make great gains.
The only thing I'll add is that you need to progress overtime. For this upper body workout I suggest choosing push ups and body rows. I suggest you choose a progression of the push up and body row whereby, if you had to, you could do 16-20reps of the exercise. Now do 10 sets x 10 reps of each exercise (at that progression that you could do 16-20reps of). Take about 60-120sec rest between sets. Boom, great workout done in 30mins, max.
To regress the push ups shown:
Elevate your hands onto a bench or a wall or drop to your knees.
To progress the push ups shown:
Add reps or Elevate your feet slightly.
To regress the body rows shown:
Bend your knees to 90 degrees or hold onto a bar that is higher than what is shown.
To progress the body rows shown:
Add reps or find a bar that is lower than this one. Or eventually move into chin ups(although your current shoulder mobility levels might not allow for that). If you've chosen the right progression, your first few sets will feel easy!! But the accumulation of the stress combined with the rest time will add up and your 6th to 10th sets will feel much more challenging. If you were able to finish your 10th set and still could have gotten in another 3-5 reps, it means for the next workout it is time to choose a harder progression of the exercise.